Information, Media & News Literacies: Word Bank

Maybe it is my modus operandi (as a multilingual), when I try to wrap my mind around a topic, theme, content, etc….I automatically will start with the vocabulary used with that topic, theme or in the content matter. Learning about the vocabulary, searching for definition and meaning in context usually gives me a great start.

Maybe others will feel overwhelmed with all these new words, definitions and meanings… It is just one way to organize new information, make connection, learn to be able to read, then “speak” and converse about the content.

The following word bank is a compilation of keywords and buzzwords, I have come across in my readings online (and in books) on the topic as well as crowdsourced contributions from my online network. Thank you

@julnilsmith @dhudgins @holden @erik_palmer @jenniferlagarde @ms_lonergan @historytechie @roschkekj @KQEDedspace

  • Disinformation– deliberately created false information
  • unintentional Misinformation– information spread due to carelessness, cognitive bias
  • Fake News– fabricated content designed to fool readers and subsequently made viral through the Internet to crowds that increase its dissemination
  • Deep Fakes – umbrella term for visual and audio content that is manipulated or generated through the use of machine-learning (ML) – a subset of artificial intelligence (AI).
  • Shallow Fakes– rudimentary manipulation of content. The slowing down or freezing of frames is made possible by using simple video editing software.
  • Alternative Facts– Obscuring and misleading expression for the attempt to establish false claims as legitimate means of public discourse
  • Truth Decay– Defined by Jennifer Kavanagh and Michael D. Rich 1. increasing disagreement about facts and analytical interpretations of facts and data 2. a blurring of the line between opinion and fact 3. the increasing relative volume, and resulting influence, of opinion and personal experience over fact 4. declining trust in formerly respected sources of factual information.
  • Post-Truth World a philosophical and political concept for “the disappearance of shared objective standards for truth”
  • Click bait– Clickbait is a form of false advertisement which uses hyperlink text or a thumbnail link that is designed to attract attention and entice users to follow that link and read, view, or listen to the linked piece of online content, with a defining characteristic of being deceptive, typically sensationalized or misleading. A “teaser” aims to exploit the “curiosity gap”, providing just enough information to make readers of news websites curious, but not enough to satisfy their curiosity without clicking through to the linked content. Click-bait headlines add an element of dishonesty, using enticements that do not accurately reflect the content being delivered.
  • Digital (Media) Forensic
  • Website Spoofing– make you belief you are visiting a trusted website
  • Hoax News- deliberately fabricated falsehood made to masquerade the truth
  • Fearmongering or scaremongering is the spreading of frightening and exaggerated rumors of an impending danger or the habit or tactic of purposely and needlessly arousing public fear about an issue.
  • Informat Trolls- In Internet slang, a troll is a person who starts quarrels or upsets people on the Internet to distract and sow discord by posting inflammatory and digressive, extraneous, or off-topic messages in an online community (such as a newsgroup, forum, chat room, or blog) with the intent of provoking readers into displaying emotional responses and normalizing tangential discussion, whether for the troll’s amusement or a specific gain.
  • Trigger– We live in a world where we expect information to be free – forcing content creators to rely on hooks that trigger extreme emotional responses. Once the trigger is pulled, emotion drives our clicks/shares.
  • Astroturfing– Astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization (e.g., political, advertising, religious or public relations) to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participants.
  • (Sock) Puppet accounts– is an online identity used for purposes of deception […] such as those created to praise, defend, or support a person or organization, to manipulate public opinion, or to circumvent restrictions, suspension or an outright ban from a website.
  • Engagement Bait is a type of social media post that is designed to get you to interact with (seemingly) innocuous content through likes, follows, shares and comments
  • Filter Bubbles– a term coined by Internet activist Eli Pariser – is a state of intellectual isolation that allegedly can result from personalized searches when a website algorithm selectively guesses what information a user would like to see based on information about the user, such as location, past click-behavior and search history.
  • Algorithmic Literacy–  may consist of at least knowing when an algorithm is present, behind the scenes, and making inferences about what it’s trying to do.
  • Sponsored Content– also known as a promoted post, is a post to any community-driven notification-oriented website which is explicitly sponsored as an advertisement by a particular company in order to draw a large amount of popularity through user promotion and moderation.
  • Influencers– a celebrity who has acquired or developed their fame and notability through the Internet. The rise of social media has helped people increase their outreach to a global audience.
  • Botsalso known as a web robot, robot or simply bot, is a software application that runs automated tasks (scripts) over the Internet. Typically, bots perform tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human alone. 
  • Propaganda Any media text whose primary purpose is to openly persuade an audience of the validity of a particular point of view.
  • Availability Bias– is the tendency to let an example that comes to mind easily affect decision-making or reasoning.The availability bias is the human tendency to think that examples of things that come readily to mind are more representative than is actually the case. The psychological phenomenon is just one of a number of cognitive biases that hamper critical thinking and, as a result, the validity of our decisions.
  • Lateral Reading Instead of moving up to down as you are reading, you are moving lateral, from tab to tab
  • Hyperlinked Reading is not meant to be linear, it is all about following tangents to other linked sites with additional information, another perspective, or a list of sites categorized with the same tag.
  • Hashtagged Reading– Following hashtags to continue reading. Hashtagged reading creates a community around a common interest, theme or topic.
  • Virtue Signaling -the sharing of one’s point of view on a social or political issue, often on social media, in order to garner praise or acknowledgment of one’s righteousness from others who share that point of view, or to passively rebuke those who do not:- Tweeting or posting in order to look more “woke” than someone else
  • Hashtag Squatting=Hashtag Hijacking– Using a hashtag for the opposite purpose than what was originally intended by the author, creator, brand or company.
  • Infogestion– Neurological version of indigestion where body parts used for ingesting information (eyes, frontal cortex, synapses) feel full and overloaded.
  • Backlog Depression Subtle, background stress caused by number of unprocessed emails
  • Data Voids describe search engine queries that turn up little to no results, especially when the query is rather obscure, or not searched often.”
  • False Frames– real events, articles, and media are shared with deceptive framing [to purposefully deceive].
  • Chumboxes– A chumbox (or chumbucket) is a form of online advertising that uses a grid of thumbnails and captions to drive traffic to other sites and web pages. This form of advertising is often associated with low quality “clickbait” links and articles.
  • Data-driven Marketing (Targeting) – is a process by which marketers gain insights and trends based on in-depth analysis informed by numbers. Data-driven marketing refers to strategies built on insights pulled from the analysis of big data, collected through consumer interactions and engagements, to form predictions about future behaviors
  • Hypermind– Sensation of grinding, compulsive internet activity, usually consisting of automated loops of habituated web activities- an experience of no gaps between stimuli: link to link to link to link.
  • Media Ownership– Who owns the media we consume? How is the purpose of a media message connected to the creator and their allegiance/ownership.
  • Impulse Control- How do we best control ourselves when our emotions are triggered to click, like, share information online. Think Before You Act.
  • Media Targets– Audiences are media targets. Audiences are targeted, sold and delivered to advertisers by media agencies. Groups are targeted on the basis of demographics, media use patterns, zip codes, and polling by those who wish to sell or persuade.

What are some other terms around media, information and news literacy that you would include in this word bank. Please leave the keyword, a definition and potentially a link to further information in the comment section below.